Liquid Capital: Making the Chicago Waterfront

21 Gennaio, 2018

In the nineteenth century, politicians transformed a disease-infested bog on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan into an intensively managed waterscape supporting the life and economy of Chicago, now America’s third-most populous city. In Liquid Capital, Joshua A. T. Salzmann shows how, through a combination of entrepreneurship, civic spirit, and bareknuckle politics, the Chicago waterfront became a hub of economic and cultural activity while also the site of many of the nation’s precendent-setting decisions about public land use and environmental protection. Through the political saga of waterfront development, Salzmann illuminates Chicago’s seemingly paradoxical position as both a paragon of buccaneering capitalism and assertive state power.

The list of actions undertaken by local politicians and boosters to facilitate the waterfront’s success is long: officials reversed a river, built a canal to fuse the Great Lakes and Mississippi River watersheds, decorated the lakeshore with parks and monuments, and enacted regulations governing the use of air, land, and water. With these feats of engineering and statecraft, they created a waterscape conducive to commodity exchange, leisure tourism, and class harmony-in sum, an invaluable resource for profit making. Their actions made the city’s growth and the development of its western hinterlands possible. Liquid Capital sheds light on these precedent-making policies, their effect on Chicago’s development as a major economic and cultural force, and the ways in which they continue to shape legislation regarding the use of air and water.




Executive summary


Chapter 1 Developing the benchmarking methodology

1.1 Background and overview

1.1.1 Cruise tourism development in South-East Asia

1.1.2 Benchmarking for sustainable cruise tourism development

1.2 Key components

1.2.1 Data-driven collaboration

1.2.2 Harmonizing frameworks and criteria

1.2.3 Continuous improvement

1.3 Operating the pilot

Chapter 2 Pilot benchmarking criteria

2.1 Pillars and concepts

2.2 Visitor management

2.2.1 Port reception facilities

2.2.2 Base data on cruise ship arrivals

2.2.3 Base data on cruise passengers

2.2.4 Forecasts on number of calls and passengers

2.2.5 Maximum capacity limits

2.2.6 Ideal capacity limits

2.2.7 Cruise itinerary

2.2.8 Accessibility for persons with disabilities: cruise facilities

2.2.9 Accessibility for persons with disabilities: destinations

2.2.10 Promotion of sustainable tourism

2.2.11 Cruise passenger feedback

2.2.12 Accessible routes

2.2.13 Nearest public transportation options

2.2.14 Modes of transportation

2.2.15 Managing cruise passenger visitation crowds

2.3 Environmental management

2.3.1 Low emission vehicles

2.3.2 Air quality

2.3.3 Shore power

2.3.4 Effluent treatment

2.3.5 Water quality in waterways

2.3.6 Water quality near the cruise reception facilities

2.3.7 Purchase of potable water

2.3.8 Sewage treatment

2.3.9 Volume of waste disposal

2.3.10 Volume of diverted waste

2.3.11 Handling of waste material

2.3.12 Fee structure and fees for waste

2.3.13 Waste processing facilities

2.3.14 Port waste management plan

2.3.15 Recycling of land waste

2.3.16 Purchase of renewable energy

2.3.17 Environmental management system

2.3.18 Environmental/sustainable tourism certifications

2.3.19 Regulations and standards for bunker fuel

2.4 Natural and cultural heritage preservation

2.4.1 Inventory management and classification of assets

2.4.2 Significant natural and cultural heritage sites

2.4.3 Most visited attractions and sites

2.4.4 Visitor carrying capacity

2.4.5 Operation budget for on-going maintenance, restoration, and preservation

2.4.6 Promoting destination’s activities and attractions

2.4.7 Dynamic pricing entry fee at top attractions

2.4.8 Training programme for heritage site managers

2.4.9 Local resident visitation

2.4.10 Complaints by locals

2.4.11 Code of conduct for tour guides and tour operators

2.5 Economic and community impacts

2.5.1 Locally-owned businesses

2.5.2 Cruise ship fees

2.5.3 Tracking measures for revenues generated

2.5.4 Maintenance of attractions and destination infrastructure

2.5.5 Dynamic pricing for yield management

2.5.6 Cruise passenger visitation spend

2.5.7 Allocation of revenue for conservation of natural and cultural heritage

2.5.8 Annual spend on conservation of natural and cultural heritage

2.5.9 Financial contributions to the community and conservation initiatives

2.5.10 Social responsibility and community programmes

2.5.11 Resident concerns and satisfaction

2.6 Governance

2.6.1 Sustainability committee

2.6.2 Issues management

2.6.3 Regional and international participation

Chapter 3 Benchmarking analysis

3.1 Cruise destinations

3.2 Cruise destination enhanced benchmarking with assessment

3.3 Content of benchmarking exercise

3.3.1 Responses and content received

3.3.2 Recommendations for improvement

Chapter 4 Situation analysis

4.1 Visitor management

4.1.1 Most common practices in visitor management

4.1.2 Emerging practices in visitor management

4.2 Environmental management

4.2.1 Most common practices in environmental management

4.2.2 Emerging practices in environmental management

4.3 Natural and cultural heritage preservation

4.3.1 Most common practices in natural and cultural heritage preservation

4.3.2 Emerging practices in natural and cultural heritage preservation

4.4 Economic and community impacts

4.4.1 Most common practices in economic and community impacts

4.4.2 Emerging practices in economic and community impacts

4.5 Governance

4.5.1 Most common practices in governance

4.5.2 Emerging practices in governance

Chapter 5 Cruise tourism case studies

5.1 Good practice: visitor management

5.2 Good practice: environmental management

5.3 Good practice: natural and cultural heritage preservation

5.4 Good practice: economic and community impacts

5.5 Good practice: governance



Annex I Strategies and tactics for sustainable cruise tourism development and responsible tourism in South-East Asia

Annex II Cruise reception facility pilot survey questions

Annex III Cruise destination managers pilot survey questions

Annex IV Sample benchmarking report based on the 2016. Sustainable Cruise Tourism Benchmarking Survey results

Annex V Consolidated benchmarking results by pillars

List of abbreviations

References and bibliography

Author Biography


Joshua A. T. Salzmann

Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Department of History, Northeastern Illinois University.

Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of History, University of Illinois at Chicago (2010-2012)

Lecturer, Department of History, University of Illinois at Chicago (2008-2009).

Expertise in History of Cities, Capitalism, and Natural and Built Environments.

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