Benchmarking Methodology for the Development of Sustainable Cruise Tourism in South-East Asia

21 Gennaio, 2018

Benchmarking Methodology for the Development of Sustainable Cruise Tourism in South-East Asia” follows the 2016 publication on “Sustainable Cruise Tourism Development Strategies – Tackling the Challenges in Itinerary Design in South-East Asia”. Both reports were prepared in cooperation with the Asia-Pacific Tourism Exchange Center (APTEC). This second publication aims to support data-driven collaboration by encouraging information exchanges related to sustainable cruise tourism in South-East Asia. The report presents a methodology for policymakers and stakeholders to evaluate the impacts of cruise tourism at the destination level. With this methodology, destinations can benchmark their progress compared to that of their neighbours and, ultimately, enhance their regional collaboration.




Executive summary


Chapter 1 Developing the benchmarking methodology

1.1 Background and overview

1.1.1 Cruise tourism development in South-East Asia

1.1.2 Benchmarking for sustainable cruise tourism development

1.2 Key components

1.2.1 Data-driven collaboration

1.2.2 Harmonizing frameworks and criteria

1.2.3 Continuous improvement

1.3 Operating the pilot

Chapter 2 Pilot benchmarking criteria

2.1 Pillars and concepts

2.2 Visitor management

2.2.1 Port reception facilities

2.2.2 Base data on cruise ship arrivals

2.2.3 Base data on cruise passengers

2.2.4 Forecasts on number of calls and passengers

2.2.5 Maximum capacity limits

2.2.6 Ideal capacity limits

2.2.7 Cruise itinerary

2.2.8 Accessibility for persons with disabilities: cruise facilities

2.2.9 Accessibility for persons with disabilities: destinations

2.2.10 Promotion of sustainable tourism

2.2.11 Cruise passenger feedback

2.2.12 Accessible routes

2.2.13 Nearest public transportation options

2.2.14 Modes of transportation

2.2.15 Managing cruise passenger visitation crowds

2.3 Environmental management

2.3.1 Low emission vehicles

2.3.2 Air quality

2.3.3 Shore power

2.3.4 Effluent treatment

2.3.5 Water quality in waterways

2.3.6 Water quality near the cruise reception facilities

2.3.7 Purchase of potable water

2.3.8 Sewage treatment

2.3.9 Volume of waste disposal

2.3.10 Volume of diverted waste

2.3.11 Handling of waste material

2.3.12 Fee structure and fees for waste

2.3.13 Waste processing facilities

2.3.14 Port waste management plan

2.3.15 Recycling of land waste

2.3.16 Purchase of renewable energy

2.3.17 Environmental management system

2.3.18 Environmental/sustainable tourism certifications

2.3.19 Regulations and standards for bunker fuel

2.4 Natural and cultural heritage preservation

2.4.1 Inventory management and classification of assets

2.4.2 Significant natural and cultural heritage sites

2.4.3 Most visited attractions and sites

2.4.4 Visitor carrying capacity

2.4.5 Operation budget for on-going maintenance, restoration, and preservation

2.4.6 Promoting destination’s activities and attractions

2.4.7 Dynamic pricing entry fee at top attractions

2.4.8 Training programme for heritage site managers

2.4.9 Local resident visitation

2.4.10 Complaints by locals

2.4.11 Code of conduct for tour guides and tour operators

2.5 Economic and community impacts

2.5.1 Locally-owned businesses

2.5.2 Cruise ship fees

2.5.3 Tracking measures for revenues generated

2.5.4 Maintenance of attractions and destination infrastructure

2.5.5 Dynamic pricing for yield management

2.5.6 Cruise passenger visitation spend

2.5.7 Allocation of revenue for conservation of natural and cultural heritage

2.5.8 Annual spend on conservation of natural and cultural heritage

2.5.9 Financial contributions to the community and conservation initiatives

2.5.10 Social responsibility and community programmes

2.5.11 Resident concerns and satisfaction

2.6 Governance

2.6.1 Sustainability committee

2.6.2 Issues management

2.6.3 Regional and international participation

Chapter 3 Benchmarking analysis

3.1 Cruise destinations

3.2 Cruise destination enhanced benchmarking with assessment

3.3 Content of benchmarking exercise

3.3.1 Responses and content received

3.3.2 Recommendations for improvement

Chapter 4 Situation analysis

4.1 Visitor management

4.1.1 Most common practices in visitor management

4.1.2 Emerging practices in visitor management

4.2 Environmental management

4.2.1 Most common practices in environmental management

4.2.2 Emerging practices in environmental management

4.3 Natural and cultural heritage preservation

4.3.1 Most common practices in natural and cultural heritage preservation

4.3.2 Emerging practices in natural and cultural heritage preservation

4.4 Economic and community impacts

4.4.1 Most common practices in economic and community impacts

4.4.2 Emerging practices in economic and community impacts

4.5 Governance

4.5.1 Most common practices in governance

4.5.2 Emerging practices in governance

Chapter 5 Cruise tourism case studies

5.1 Good practice: visitor management

5.2 Good practice: environmental management

5.3 Good practice: natural and cultural heritage preservation

5.4 Good practice: economic and community impacts

5.5 Good practice: governance


Author Biography


World Tourism Organization

The WTO originated as the International Congress of Official Tourist Traffic Associations, which was set up in 1925. It went through several transformations over the years and was officially converted into a specialized agency of the United Nations in 2003. The organization is the most significant global body concerned with the collection and collation of statistical information on international tourism and it serves as a global forum for tourism policy issues and practical tourism know-how. In 2006 it was comprised of 150 countries, seven territories and more than 300 Affiliated Members representing the private sector, educational institutions, tourism associations and local tourism authorities.

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